Currently Completed Counties – Durham

This week we review the deserted settlements listed in 1968 in County Durham. In 1954 seven villages were suggested as classic deserted sites with another nine listed as possibilities (Beresford 1954: 350). One site from 1954, Newton – Archdeacon does not appear on the 1968 Gazetteer, which lists a total of 29 sites. Extensive work has since been carried out in the county and the Historic Environment Record now records over 140 sites.

Deserted settlements in County Durham listed in 1968
Deserted settlements in County Durham listed in 1968

Much of the work has been spearheaded by Brian Roberts’ analysis of village form. Evidence from such settlement investigation in the county and the wider northern England has highlighted that up to 80% of settlements contain evidence of planning in their structure and layout (Roberts 2008, Wrathmell 2012). There are a range of plans that these settlements follow – but many of the settlements listed on the website show clear evidence of the regular two-row format, with the rows facing each other, often on either side of a street or a green. A more complex regular plan can be seen at Walworth which shows evidence of two regular rows to the north and west of a central green, with perhaps further evidence for more tofts on the other sides.

Walworth, County Durham. Copyright Google.
Walworth, County Durham. Copyright Google.

There is a change in settlement pattern in County Durham from east to west, with the east falling within the landscape characterised by nucleated villages. To the west is an increase in farmsteads and a more dispersed settlement pattern with place-names signifying woodland mainly located on Pennine Spurs and High Pennines (Roberts 2008, Roberts et al. 2005). The general pattern of desertions in the county has been studied from a number of different angles and suggests gradual reductions rather than sudden desertions (Roberts 2008: 44).

Deserted settlement sites as classified by the website
Deserted settlement sites as classified by the website

Excavations

Compared with some of the other counties of England there has been considerable fieldwork on deserted sites in County Durham. In several cases this was due to an imminent threat to the archaeology. One of the earliest excavations was undertaken at Yoden, a site now identified as Horden (Middleton 1885, Turnbull 2004). Excavations in 1884 proved the medieval date of the remains uncovering what were described as ‘foundations of the rudest descriptions, consisting entirely of mere shapeless masses of un-hewn stone’ (Middleton 1885: 186). Since then the site has been encroached upon by Peterlee but a small area of earthworks still survives (Turnbull 2006).

At Swainston at least 10 house sites have been identified and two of these were excavated between 1957-1960 (Booth 1957). The excavated houses were located in the south-east of the site and may have been on the edge of the settlement. Both structures have been dated to the fourteenth to fifteenth century (Wilson and Hurst 1960: 160). A full excavation report has not appeared.

Excavations were conducted in the 1960s at West Hartburn. Earthworks north of the road through the village had been ploughed and the excavations concentrated on the earthworks that still existed to the south (Still and Palliser 1964, 1967, Palliser and Wrathmell 1990). These revealed evidence of a number of different buildings with at least two longhouses uncovered, and a smaller building which is now thought to be a smaller structure associated with one of the longhouses. It is estimated that altogether there were 12 tofts. Pottery dating to the thirteenth to sixteenth century was recovered (Palliser and Wrathmell 1990).

West Hartburn, County Durham, surviving earthworks. Copyright Google.
West Hartburn, County Durham, surviving earthworks. Copyright Google.

The remains of the village of Thrislington were badly damaged during quarrying activity; however rescue excavations were undertaken in 1973-1974 (Austin 1989). These excavations revealed evidence of toft boundaries, a chapel, industrial areas, houses and a manor house. The east-west track present in the 1970s signified the medieval routeway through the settlement and on either side of this were enclosures which backed onto ridge and furrow. These enclosures seemed to represent tofts with building platforms to the front of them. The excavations suggested the manor house was constructed in the twelfth century and abandoned in the early fourteenth century. Excavation of buildings in the tofts suggests they appear in the thirteenth century and some disappear by the middle of the fifteenth century, while others continue until the sixteenth century (Austin 1989).

Excavations were carried out at Castle Eden in 1974 when the site was under threat from development (Austin and O’Mahoney 1987). The earthworks at the site were not clear, but ten trenches were excavated down to the first archaeological features, but not fully excavated (Austin and O’Mahoney 1987). The intention was to show the presence of medieval settlement and the potential of the site while not compromising the archaeology. These revealed a north-south hollow way and suggested houses to either side forming two rows. Pottery uncovered dated from the twelfth to sixteenth century (Austin and O’Mahoney 1987).

A deserted settlement in County Durham – Ulnaby – has also featured on Channel 4’s Time Team in 2008. Survey work and excavations as part of the programme suggested that the settlement was only occupied for a short period from the late thirteenth century to the fifteenth century (Wessex Archaeology 2008). A survey in 2007 had suggested that there was an earlier phase to the site without a green (Grindley et al. 2008). The small-scale excavation though did not support this conclusion (Wessex Archaeology 2008).

Ulnaby, County Durham. Copyright Google.
Ulnaby, County Durham. Copyright Google.

One site, Sockburn, is currently under investigation due to the presence of a possible minster church and pre-conquest sculpture (Semple and Petts 2014). It is in doubt if there was ever a village here, but this project may help resolve this issue.

Smaller excavations have occurred elsewhere such as at Elton where a medieval barn was uncovered (Nenk et al. 1992). Some sites have also undergone detailed survey work. One such site is Newsham which was surveyed in 1972. The earthworks could be seen clearly from the air, located to the east and north of the River Tees. These included hollow ways and enclosures. At least 11 tofts were identified and at least 11 building platforms suggested including one that was possibly the chapel of St James (Pallister and Pallister 1978). These were aligned along a north-south axis which corresponded to the modern farm track, and the house plots were located on either side of a narrow green.

One excellent source of information on deserted settlements in County Durham is the Durham Historic Environment Record that is available online via the Keys to the Past website at http://www.keystothepast.info/.

References

Austin, D and C. O’Mahoney 1987. ‘The Medieval Settlement and Landscape of Castle Eden, Peterlee, Co. Durham: Excavations 1974’, Durham Archaeological Journal 3: 57-78.

Austin, D. 1989. The Deserted Medieval Village of Thrislington, Co Durham: Excavation 1973-1974. London:  Society for Medieval Archaeology Monograph Series No 12.

Beresford, M.W. 1954. The Lost Villages of England. London: Lutterworth.

Booth, J.C. 1957. ‘Swainston Village’, South Shields Archaeological and History Society Papers 1, 5: 9-14.

Grindey, C., M. Jecock and A. Oswald 2008. Ulnaby, Darlington: An Archaeological Survey and Investigation of the Deserted Medieval Village. English Heritage Unpublished Research Department Report No. 13-2008.

Middleton, R.M. 1885. ‘On Yoden, A Medieval site between Castle Eden and Easington’, Archaeologia Aeliana 10: 186-187.

Nenk, B.S., S. Margeson and M. Hurley 1992. ‘Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1991’, Medieval Archaeology 36: 204-205.

Pallister, A.F. and P.M.J. Pallister 1978. ‘A Survey of the Deserted Medieval Village of Newsham’, Transactions of the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland 4: 7-19.

Pallister, A.F. and S. Wrathmell 1990. ‘The Deserted Village of West Hartburn, Third Report: Excavations of Site D and Discussion’, in B.E. Vyner (ed.) Medieval Rural Settlement in North-East England: 59-78. Durham: Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland Research Report 2.

Roberts, B.K. 2008. Landscapes, Documents and maps: Villages in Northern England and Beyond AD 900-1250. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Roberts, B.K., H. Dunsford and S.J. Harris 2005. ‘Framing Medieval Landscapes: Region and Place in County Durham’, in C.D. Liddy and R.H. Britnell (eds) North-East England in the Later Middle Ages: 221-237. Woodbridge: Boydell.

Semple, S and D. Petts 2014. Sockburn Project, Co Durham. https://www.dur.ac.uk/archaeology/research/projects/?mode=project&id=716

Still, L. and A. Paliister 1964. ‘The Excavation of One House Site in the Deserted Village of West Hartburn, County Durham’, Archaeologia Aeliana 42: 187-206.

Still, L. and A. Pallister 1967. ‘West Hartburn 1965 Site C’, Archaeologia Aeliana 45: 139-148.

Turnbull, P. 2004. A Deserted Medieval Village off Eden Lane, Peterlee, Co. Durham. The Brigantia Archaeological Practice Unpublished Report.

Wessex Archaeology. 2008. Ulnaby Hall, High Coniscliffe, County Durham: Archaeological Evaluation and Assessment of Results. Wessex Archaeology Unpublished Report 68731.01.

Wilson, D.M. and J.G. Hurst 1960. ‘Medieval Britain in 1959’, Medieval Archaeology 4: 134-165.

Wrathmell, S. 2012. ‘Northern England: Exploring the Character of Medieval Rural Settlements’, in N. Christie and P. Stamper (eds) Medieval Rural Settlement in Britain and Ireland AD 800-1600: 249-269. Oxford: Windgather.

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Currently Completed Counties – Derbyshire

Continuing reviewing the villages listed in the 1968 Gazetteer of deserted medieval villages in England we move to a quick look at Derbyshire this week, which appears on the Beresford’s Lost Villages website with full descriptions of each village. In 1954 nine settlements were listed as lost, with a further seven possible sites (Beresford 1954: 346). All appear on the 1968 Gazetteer which numbered 33 in total. One piece of work that was influential in locating sites in Derbyshire was a paper by Wightman (1961) looking at open field agriculture in the Peak District. Mainly in the footnotes to this paper he examines the documentary evidence for a range of deserted villages as well as making the distinction of deserted hamlets. The number of identified deserted settlements has increased with over 60 sites now recorded on the HER (Historic Environment Record).

Deserted settlements in Derbyshire listed in 1968
Deserted settlements in Derbyshire listed in 1968

Derbyshire was traditionally seen as an upland zone, characterised by dispersed settlement. This was the premise tested by Wrightman in 1961 and his main conclusion was that Derbyshire does have evidence of nucleated villages and open field systems, although little settlement occurred in the highest levels of the Peak District. The East Midlands in general does show that areas of nucleated settlement can sit side by side with regions with dispersed settlement, and that regions and counties vary considerably (Lewis 2006).

Reasons for desertion are varied across the county. They include recent desertions with the construction of reservoirs such as at Derwent. Some villages disappear due to the whims of landed gentry such as at Kedleston and Chatsworth, and some seem to be fairly late desertions such as at Mercaston. Other sites seemed to have declined in the fourteenth century with that at Nether Haddon possibly being depopulated to make way for a deer park.

Deserted sites as classified by the website
Deserted sites as classified by the website

Excavations

The main excavations that have occurred in the county are concentrated in the southern areas. Barton Blount was excavated in 1968 due to the threat from deep ploughing (Beresford 1975). This had effectively destroyed the archaeology that was both above and below the surface across a large part of the site. Based on the layout and grouping of the site these excavations found five possible phases, with a date of occupation between the tenth and fifteenth century. The excavations completely investigated four crofts, but there are thought to be about forty-three crofts at the settlement (Beresford 1975). The excavation revealed a variety of timber structures that were never replaced in stone (Beresford 1975). More recent excavations have been small scale such as the excavation of Blingsby village (does not appear on the 1968 Gazetteer), the excavation of part of a building at Derwent and the survey work on the Chatsworth Estate (Beresford 2012, Sidebottom 1993, Barnatt 2009).

References

Barnatt, J. 2009. ‘Chatsworth: Archaeological Landscapes and Local Distinctiveness Through Time’, Archaeological Journal 166: 124-192.

Beresford, G. 1975. The Medieval Clay-land Village: Excavations at Goltho and Barton Blount. London: The Society for Medieval Archaeology.

Beresford, M. 2012. The Hardwick Estate: A Journey Through Time. MBarchaeology Unpublished Report. http://www.mbarchaeology.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Hardwick-Report.pdf

Beresford, M.W. 1954. The Lost Villages of England. London: Lutterworth.

Lewis, C. 2006. ‘The Medieval Period (850-1500)’, in N.J. Cooper (ed.) The Archaeology of the East Midlands: an Archaeological Resource Assessment and Research Agenda: 185-216. Leicester: Leicester Archaeology Monographs 13.

Sidebottom, P. 1993. ‘The Derwent Cross Shaft: Discovery and Excavation 1991’, Transactions of the Hunter Archaeological Society  17: 9-18.

Wrightman, W.E. 1961. ‘Open Field Agriculture in the Peak District’, Derbyshire Archaeological Journal 81: 111-125.

Currently Completed Counties – Dorset

The next county review takes a look at the settlements listed in the 1968 Gazetteer in Dorset. In 1954 Beresford lists 13 clearly identified deserted sites in Dorset as well as listing a range of decayed churches (Beresford 1954: 347-349). In the 1968 Gazetteer, 42 settlements are listed. There are notes in the Medieval Village Research Group Annual Reports from the late 1980s of a Dorset county list of deserted and shrunken settlements being compiled. In 1988 it was noted the list totalled 254 separate sites (Higham 1988: 15). Since this point there has been continuing work on deserted settlements in the county. A detailed summary of ‘Lost Villages’ was published by Ronald Good in 1979. This divides settlements into various groups: those classed as deserted villages (43 sites); those now represented by country houses (26 sites); those represented by farmsteads (90 sites); existing villages which have changed (31 sites); and villages submerged by modern buildings (47 sites) (Good 1979). The total list of settlements reaches 237, excluding a complex landscape of settlements at Milborne St Andrew, an increase of 195 since 1968.

Deserted settlements in Dorset listed in 1968
Deserted settlements in Dorset listed in 1968

One clear source for the study of the landscape of Dorset has been the volumes published by the RCHME which reviewed known earthwork remains (available from British History Online). This has provided an excellent corpus of surveys published between 1952 and 1975. Sites with earthwork surveys include: Bardolfeston, Bingham’s Melcombe, Little Piddle and Milborne Brook.

Bingham's Melcombe  Copyright English Heritage (RCHME 1970)
Bingham’s Melcombe Copyright English Heritage (RCHME 1970)

Unfortunately Dorset does not feature heavily in recent reviews of medieval settlement in the South West (e.g. Rippon and Croft 2007). One reason for this may well be due to its variety. The pattern of settlement in medieval Dorset is not a unified picture and hence generalities are difficult to tease out. As Taylor noted ‘It is the variety of landscape in Dorset which gives the county its great charm and which has resulted in the equally varied landscape history’ (1970: 21). In places the chalklands take on a more nucleated pattern with villages and open fields, in other areas such as the heathland, a dispersed pattern of farmsteads and enclosed fields prevails (Taylor 1970). The divide between the Central Province and South East province identified by Roberts and Wrathmell cuts through Dorset following very much this geological divide (Roberts and Wrathmell 2000). Many of the early identified deserted settlements have been found in the chalklands, and there is little evidence of desertion outside this zone (Taylor 1970). In some cases clusters of deserted settlements can be seen along chalk valleys. However more recent work and re-evaluation of the definition of settlement may well change this picture.

Deserted settlements in Dorset as classified by the website
Deserted settlements in Dorset as classified by the website

Dorset includes a range of deserted sites from small hamlets, to large medieval towns, to sites that may never have developed in the first place. A clear example of a deserted town is that of Milton Abbas, where the landowner, Joseph Damer, removed more than one hundred homes, three inns and a school to ensure an uninterrupted view from his new home (Good 1979). The town of Gotowre on the other hand may never have actually developed. Edward I planned a town which was ‘to lay out with sufficient streets and lanes, adequate sites for a market and church, plots for merchants and others in a new town with a harbour in a place called Gotowre’, however it is not clear to what extent the order was ever carried out (Bowen and Taylor 1964).

A small number of excavations have take place at sites in Dorset. The village at Holworth was excavated in 1958 by Philip Rahtz using the open area methodology. This allowed the ephemeral remains of the structures to be identified. A trial excavation in 1936 had already uncovered pottery and stone work. One of the seven clearly defined tofts formed the focus of attention in 1958 (Rahtz 1959). This uncovered pottery dating from the twelfth to the fifteenth century and a longhouse was revealed that was divided into three parts with rubble floors. Only small scale test pitting has been undertaken at the other sites in Dorset such as Bexington and Blackmanston.

It is clear that the 42 sites currently listed on the Beresford’s Lost Villages website are the tip of the iceberg of deserted settlement in Dorset and it is hoped that future updates on the website will be able to provide a fuller picture.

References

Beresford, M.W. 1954. The Lost Villages of England. London: Lutterworth.

Bowen, H.C. and C.C Taylor 1964. ‘The Site of Newton (Nova Villa), Studland, Dorset’, Medieval Archaeology 8: 223-226

Good, R. 1979. The Lost Villages of Dorset. Wimborne: The Dovecote Press.

Higham, N.J. 1988. ‘Research in 1988. i. Fieldwork’, Medieval Settlement Research Group Annual Report 3: 14-18.

RCHME 1970. An Inventory of Historical Monuments in the County of Dorset. Volume Three: Central Dorset Part 2. London: RCHME: 171-172.

Rippon, S. and B. Croft 2007. ‘Post-Conquest Medieval’, in C. Webster (ed.) The Archaeology of South West England: 195-207. Taunton: Somerset Heritage Service.

Roberts, B.K. and S. Wrathmell 2000. An Atlas of Rural Settlement in England. London: English Heritage.

Rahtz, P.A. 1959. ‘Holworth, Medieval Village Excavation 1958’, Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society 81: 127-147.

Taylor, C. 1970. Dorset. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Currently Completed Counties – Devon

Following on from a review of Cornwall last week, this week we look at another county in the south-west, Devon. This was one county where much work was being carried out in the 1960s. This benefited the Gazetteer to a certain extent but only 15 sites were listed and it was included within the 15 counties that still needed more research. The reasons for this are unclear as Linehan had published many more sites in 1966. Research in the county though has been regionally specific – for example Dartmoor has received much of the attention. Since the publication of the 1968 Gazetteer there has been much work looking at deserted settlement, continuing the work of Linehan and excavations by Minter. Much of the work has still focused on particular landscapes especially continuing on Dartmoor and Exmoor. Here Linehan had identified 110 deserted sites, and further sites have been identified since (Linehan 1966, Newman 2011: 130-131). Of these it is suggested that 45 can be seen as medieval settlements abandoned before c.1500 (Newman 2011: 130-131).

Deserted villages in Devon listed in 1968
Deserted villages in Devon listed in 1968

The landscape of settlement across Devon is one of a few nucleated villages, many hamlets and isolated farmsteads, and this pattern seems to have a long history (Hall and Hamlin 1976). This is perhaps why Devon has been difficult to quantify in terms of deserted medieval villages as many settlement sites fall into much smaller categories. However the landscape does differ on a regional basis, with significantly different patterns even in neighbouring parishes (Turner 2006: 5, Overton 2006: 109). The settlement form in Devon also varies, and many of the deserted sites consist of a cluster of buildings, sometimes with their own yards, but not the format of toft and croft seen in central England.

Deserted sites in Devon as classified by the website
Deserted sites in Devon as classified by the website

The reasons for desertion in Devon have been discussed and argued about in detail (Newman 2011). As an area where the raising of stock was always important, the impact of the change from arable, seen in other areas of the country, was not felt here (Hall and Hamlin 1976). Many have suggested that soil exhaustion was a likely cause of desertion (Beresford 1979). However the blame has often been laid at the door of climate change (Hall and Hamlin 1976). On Dartmoor there are a number of settlements that do not become deserted until much later and the story of settlement desertion is complex (Newman 2011).

Devon saw one of the very first scientific excavations carried out at a deserted settlement when the site at Beere was investigated in 1938-39 (Jope and Threlfall 1958). They excavated one house, one barn and two corn-drying kilns as well as trial trenching a number of other structures. The house was described as a typical longhouse and it was one of the first where a full plan was revealed in the area (Jope and Threlfall 1958: 112).

Excavations had also been carried out on a number of sites by E. Marie Minter who had also worked in Cornwall with Dorothy Dudley. She excavated at Houndtor, Hutholes and Dinna Clerks on Dartmoor, however they were published posthumously and with the absence of any draft text for the final report (Beresford 1979). These excavations revealed a complex development of house structures and a suggestion that two periods of construction could be identified – the first with turf houses followed by stone-built houses (Beresford 1979). This has been heavily debated.

Houndtor is a site now in the guardianship of English Heritage and was one of the first sites to be protected at the behest of the Deserted Medieval Village Research Group. The walls of structures could be clearly seen during the winter months when the vegetation was low (Beresford 1979: 98). The entire settlement was excavated and the conclusion was drawn that the stone built houses were most likely thirteenth century in date, and that the numerous earlier phases of turf structures could date it back to the eighth century (Beresford 1979: 146).

Deserted settlement at Hound Tor. Copyright Google Earth
Deserted settlement at Hound Tor. Copyright Google Earth

Similar patterns were also suggested for Hutholes and Dinna Clerks. This Anglo-Saxon origin of the settlement has been challenged (Austin and Walker 1985, Austin 1985). The early turf buildings identified from stake holes have been identified as possible temporary sub-divisions in the stone buildings and thus negating an early phase of activity (Austin 1985: 71).

Beresford responded to these ideas suggesting the best example of the turf houses can be found at Hutholes with stake holes running under the footings of a stone building, which was confirmed in 1977 (Beresford 1988: 178). A re-excavation of a longhouse at Hutholes in 1994 revealed no evidence for the stake holes or turf houses and concluded that the primary structure at the site was the stone building (Gent 2007).

Hutholes deserted settlement. Copyright Google Earth
Hutholes deserted settlement. Copyright Google Earth

One issue with the early excavations in Devon (and Cornwall) was the lack of established typologies for the local medieval pottery, and the limited amount recovered during excavations (Beresford 1979: 146). This made dating often only a tentative suggestion. Houndtor produced some pottery that was perhaps twelfth century in date, but it was suggested that Hutholes and Dinna Clerk were aceramic until the thirteenth century (Beresford 1979: 146). Since then some of the pottery has been lost, but some has been relocated allowing an assessment to be made of this earlier material (Allan 1994). A typology has now been produced and it suggested that none of the excavated settlements on Dartmoor had produced pottery that was dated before c. 1200 and that there is no evidence the excavated sites were occupied after 1450 (Allen 1994: 145).

One area where deserted settlements were listed by Linehan in 1966, and where subsequently fieldwork has been carried out, is Okehampton Park,  but none of the settlements making the 1968 Gazetteer. Excavations in the late 1970s investigated one of the sites, and further survey work has been carried out by English Heritage since the 1990s (Austin 1978, Austin et al. 1980). Across Okehampton Park a number of small clusters of buildings have been identified strung-out across the landscape (Newman 2011: 135). Further areas such as Challacombe have been subjected to extensive field survey involving detailed plans of not only the settlements published but also the associated field systems (Pattison 1999). It is hoped that all these settlements will be included in a updated version of the Beresford’s Lost Villages website.

References

Allan, J. 1994. ‘Medieval Pottery and the Dating of Deserted Settlements on Dartmoor’, Proceedings Devon Archaeological Society 52: 141-148.

Austin, D. 1978. ‘Excavations in Okehampton Deer Park, Devon, 1976-1978’, Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society 36: 191-239.

Austin, D. 1985. ‘Dartmoor and the Upland Village of the South-West of England’, in D. Hooke (ed.) Medieval Villages: 71-79. Oxford: Oxford Committee for Archaeology.

Austin, D. and M.J.C. Walker 1985. ‘A New Landscape Context for Houndtor, Devon’, Medieval Archaeology 29: 147-152.

Austin, D., R.H. Daggett and M.J.C. Walker 1980. ‘Farms and Fields in Okehampton Park, Devon: the Problems of Studying Medieval Landscape’, Landscape History 2: 39-57.

Beresford, G. 1979. ‘Three Deserted Medieval Settlements on Dartmoor: A Report on the late E. Marie Minter’s Excavations’, Medieval Archaeology 23: 98-158.

Beresford, G. 1988. ‘Three Deserted Medieval Settlements on Dartmoor: A Comment on David Austin’s Reinterpretations’, Medieval Archaeology 32: 175-183.

Gent, T. 2007. ‘The Re-Excavation of a Deserted Medieval Longhouse at Hutholes, Widecombe-in-the-Moor, Dartmoor’, Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society 65: 47-82.

Hall, J. and A. Hamlin 1976. ‘Deserted Medieval Settlements in Devon’, The Devon Historian 13: 2-7.

Jope, E.M. and R.I. Threlfall 1958. ‘Excavation of a Medieval Settlement at Beere, North Tawton, Devon’, Medieval Archaeology 2: 112-140.

Linehan, C.D. 1966. ‘Deserted Sites and Rabbit Warrens on Dartmoor, Devon’, Medieval Archaeology 10: 113-144.

Newman, P. 2011. The Field Archaeology of Dartmoor. Swindon: English Heritage.

Overton, M. 2006. ‘Farming, Fishing and Rural Settlements’, in R.J.P. Kain (ed.) The South West: 109-130. London: English Heritage.

Pattison, P. 1999. ‘Challacomb Revisited’, in P. Pattison, D. Field and S. Ainsworth (eds) Patterns of the Past: 61-70. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Turner, S. 2006. ‘The Medieval Landscape of Devon and Cornwall’, in S. Turner (ed.) Medieval Devon and Cornwall: 1-9. Macclesfield: Windgather.